The primary objective of the book is to provide advanced undergraduate or frrst-year graduate engineering students with a self-contained presentation of the principles fundamental to the analysis, design and implementation of computer controlled systems. The material is also suitable for self-study by practicing engineers and is intended to follow a first course in either linear systems analysis or control systerns. A secondary objective of the book is to provide engineering and/or computer science audiences with the material for a junior/senior-level course in modern systems analysis. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 have been designed with this purposein rnind. The emphasis in such a course is to develop the rnathernatical tools and methods suitable for the analysis and design of real-time systems such as digital filters. Thus, engineers and/or computer scientists who know how to program computers can understand the mathematics relevant to the issue of what it is they are programrning. This is especially important for those who may work in engineering and scientific environments where, for instance, programrning difference equations for real-time applications is becorning increasingly common. A background in linear algebra should be an adequate prerequisite for the systems analysis course. Chapter 1 of the book presents a brief introduction to computer controlled systems. It describes the general issues and terminology relevant to the analysis, design, and implementation of such systems.
Since the discovery of Australia antigen and its association with type B hepatitis, molecular characterization of the components making up hepatitis B virus (RBV) have been pursued with worldwide interest. Over the past two decades, such characterization has led to the development of sensitive assays to screen and exclude contaminated units from blood banks and has recently resulted in the licensing of several RBV vaccines. That more than 200 million people worldwide are chronically infected with RBV, and that they are at a high risk for the development of chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma, still represent formidable problems in our understanding of host-virus relationships on the molecular level. In the absence of a suitable tissue culture system, and with a very limited host range of infection, characterization of RBV on the molecular level has made remarkable progress recently with the advent of genome cloning, sequencing and expression of individual virus genes by recombinant DNA technology. The presence of hepatitis B-like viruses in an expanding number of animal hosts, and the possibility of virus replication in cells other than hepatocytes, provide great promise that future work will elucidate the molecular mechanisms operative in the various outcomes of RBV infection.
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