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The Naqshbandiyya is one of the most widespread and influential Sufi orders in the Muslim world. Having its origins in the Great Masters tradition of Central Asia almost a millennium ago, it played a significant role in the pre-modern history of the Indian subcontinent and the Ottoman Empire, and is still spreading today. This volume seeks to present a broad picture of the evolution of the ideas and organizational forms of the Naqshbandi order throughout its history. It combines a synthesis of the vast literature on the order with original research, and shall be an important contribution for those interested in Sufism, Islamic history and Muslim-Christian relations.
Cooperative Computer-aided Authoring And Learning
Cooperative Computer-Aided Authoring and Learning: A Systems Approach describes in detail a practical system for computer assisted authoring and learning. Drawing from the experiences gained during the Nestor project, jointly run between the Universities of Karlsruhe, Kaiserslautern and Freiburg and the Digital Equipment Corp. Center for Research and Advanced Development, the book presents a concrete example of new concepts in the domain of computer-aided authoring and learning.
The conceptual foundation is laid by a reference architecture for an integrated environment for authoring and learning. This overall architecture represents the nucleus, shell and common denominator for the R&D activities carried out. From its conception, the reference architecture was centered around three major issues:
Within this framework, the book covers four major topics which denote the most important technical domains, namely:
- Cooperation among and between authors and learners in an open, multimedia and distributed system as the most important attribute;
- Authoring/learning as the central topic;
- Laboratory as the term which evoked the most suitable association with the envisioned authoring/learning environment.
Cooperative Computer-Aided Authoring and Learning: A Systems Approach is a major contribution to the emerging field of collaborative computing and is essential reading for researchers and practitioners alike. Its pedagogic flavor also makes it suitable for use as a text for a course on the subject.
- The system kernel, based on object orientation and hypermedia;
- Distributed multimedia support;
- Cooperation support, and
- Reusable instructional design support.
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